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The Lie: Evolution
 

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Insex (Insect Reproduction)

By Karl Priest September 30, 2009 (revised 10-31-14)

SECTIONS: Attraction--Foreplay--Coitus--Sperm--Afterwards—Addendum- Complications-Evolutionism-Genitalia-and more

The categories may overlap, so search for a particular item of interest.)

If any facts are repeated, please let me know.

I have not read (or even sneaked a peak at) Six-Legged Sex—the Erotic Lives of Bugs by James K. Wangberg. My sources are multiple articles from a variety of sources.

Evolutionists explain the evolution of sex with their usual “Alice in Wonderland” imaginations. In fact, one of their prominent just-so stories is called the “ Red Queen Hypothesis”. (See “The Advantage of Sex” an adaptation of a New Scientist article at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/sex/advantage/index.html .)

The evolutionist has no more basis on “why” sexual reproduction than I who believes that God designed it because He wanted His living creatures to “be fruitful, and multiply”.

This article will focus on the absolutely astounding methods of sexual reproduction used by just a few species of insects.

Why did such complicated means of reproducing and assuring survival of the species evolve? I’ll let the evolutionists make up those stories. I will keep it simple and proclaim that God displayed His omniscient originality, His colossal creativity, His grandiose genius, and His electrifying engineering ability.

In describing God’s creativity (Of course, evolutionists credit it to their god—evolution.) the articles I read almost always anthropomorphized insects and their mating and reproductive activities. Therefore, I am going to use human stages of sexual activity as sections about the phases of insect sex.

Before breaking the subject into categories, let’s consider a rare case of complete insect parenthood form “attraction” through “afterwards.”

Burying (carrion) beetles will search for a dead animal (such as a mouse or bird) and, if necessary fight other couples of it (male vs. male and female vs. female). If a single beetle locates a carcass it will await a partner. The mates will strip the fur or feathers to line the nest. The body is formed into a ball.After the larvae (babies) hatch, both parents will regurgitate liquid flesh to feed their young. The parents continue this until the larvae ae ready to pupate. During this time the adult beetles remove fungi and secrete an antibacterial substance onto the carcass.

Attraction

Male horned flour-beetles with large mandibles have an advantage when fighting other males for female attention, but research shows that the females prier male beetle courtship regardless of mandible size.

Some robber fly males wraps prey item in silk and presents it to the female.

Virgin hide beetles are attracted by a mixture of male sex pheromones and the odor of a dead body.

Older flies are lots less attractive than younger flies.

The smell of food acts as an aphrodisiac for fruit flies.

Some butterflies fly around looking for a mate. Others fiercely fight to defend a territory in order to watch the females that come by.

Female butterflies can smell if a male is inbred.

Male thornbugs send out “advertisement signals.” If he hears a signal from a receptive female the pair exchange signals in a “mating duet” until they make contact. They must filter out irrelevant noise.
(http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/08/0812_040812_thornbug_2.htm)

A grasshopper (Bullacris membracioides) rubs his leg on his abdomen to make an “intense mating call...considered tuneful only by members of the same species.... The Females respond with a softer, less-specific call, which enables males to locate them, and they perform duets together before mating.
(http://www.nature.com/news/1998/980827/full/news980827-2.html)

Females can be too attractive to the opposite sex –– too attractive for their own good –– say biologists at UC Santa Barbara. They found that, among fruit flies, too much male attention directed toward attractive females leads to smaller families and, ultimately, to a reduced rate of population-wide adaptive evolution... the term "good looking," among fruit flies, refers to something, like a large body. From the perspective of a male fly, a desirable mate is a female that is larger and can therefore produce more offspring. (http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2009-12/uoc--uss120709.php)

The well known cricket chirp is the male calling for a female. When she gets close enough he softens the chirping.

Mole crickets construct megaphone shaped tunnels from which to call for a mate.

Cicada males sing by the thousands, often mixed with two other species—yet the female can distinguish the song of her species.

Mosquitoes synchronize the pitch of their buzzing (from wing beats of 600 times per second). If the tones match, they know they are of the same species.

Male roaches whistle (described as bird-like) for females. The complicated sound is produced by pushing air through abdominal holes and actually is two different tunes.

Water strider males produce a courtship song by tapping on the surface of the water.

Many insects use perfume (pheromones) to attract mates. A female of a scarab beetle species releases this chemical to entice males to come to her. The male beetle smells with his antennae where special switches send nerve signals to his brain as the pheromone molecules arrive. As he flies toward the female he must continually reset his scent detection system in order to adjust to various levels of the scent.

Male bumble bees mark leaves with their scent then patrol the area until a female arrives.

A type of butterfly has males that have brush like organs that he can spread out from the end of his abdomen. The purpose of the brushes is to spread a special scent. He obtains the scent from a particular plant and without it he could not get a female interested in him.

Different species of butterflies use individual methods to disperse pheromones to the female. One stands next to the female clapping his wings catching her antenna. A second gets in front, leans forward, and slowly rubs her antenna between his wings. A third gets on the female’s side and drags his forewing over her antenna as he waves his forewing. This usually takes about 30 seconds.

The African satyrid butterfly is attracted to the bright light produced by ultraviolent reflection from the center of the male’s wing eyespots.

Female fireflies flash in response to the male flash. The females are attracted to males with the longest flash.

Some male fruit flies have courtship songs that are complex rhythms. Others perform a dance showing off their wing spots.

Dance fly males bring a fresh killed insect to swarms of females. Some wrap it in silk they spin from their legs. This allows longer time for copulation.

Stalk-eyed female flies are attracted to males with a wider separation of eyes. The most prominent male can mate with 24 partners in 30 minutes.

Tiger moth females release a pheromone to attract a male. He clicks when he senses it and she clicks in response. The clicks continue until they locate each other.

Female silkworm can determine the ancestry and age of a male by the male’s smell. They only have a few days to locate a mate.

Stink bugs vibrate their bodies to send information across a plant about their location, sex, and receptiveness.

Some male insects must provide the females a nutritious gift (spermatophylax) to entice her to mate. The bigger (can 30% of males body weight) the gift the longer she allows his sperm to enter her body.

The song of a male cricket to attract a mate can also attract a parasitoid fly which leads to his slow death.

The crucial use of pheromones by insects has been targeted by scientists to design methods of controlling those insects who are pests. A prime example of that is using the attractant scents to lure the insects into traps.

A type of Bush-cricket beats on a leaf its hind foot.

Using specialised wings “male damselflies perform elaborate courtship displays, attracting females with high-speed flying manoeuvres.” The ones that “warm their bodies by flying in the sun are indeed 'hot stuff' and attract more females.” The assumption is that “hot-bodied males may benefit females by having access to the warmest territories, which in turn are optimal sites to lay eggs” and “m ating with a male in a sunny patch may also allow a female to stay warm while laying her eggs in the cold water. That will increase her ability to escape from predators and other male damselflies. Hotter males may also be better at defending their mates.”

Scientists played a recording of the “song” made by male wing vibration and then studied the flies’ active genes. The ones in the females’ antennae indicated “excitement”. It takes 2,000 brain cells for that to occur. Experimenters were surprised “that genes involved in immune function were also switched on.”

A male mole cricket will dig, test, and adjust dimensions of a burrow used to amplify his calling for a female.

Foreplay

Many species of butterfly males drench the female with an aphrodisiac scent.

A pair of dung beetles rolls a ball of dung to serve as a nursery for their offspring.

Some male springtails caress each other with their antennae before mating.

The silkmoth male has special dance that he does after detecting sex pheromones from the female. He walks toward her, sometimes straight and other times in a zigzag making several turns before making a 360 degree loop turn.

A type of male beetle stores a chemical substance in a gland in his head. Before allowing coitus the female uses her mandibles to make sure he has the chemical. No chemical—no coitus.

Some wasp species males use a complex coiling of their antennae around the female antennae allowing the male glans to precisely contact the female receptors.

A species of fruit flies has a male that follows the female softly tapping her with his leg. Later he extends a wing and vibrates it. Finally he uses his proboscis to stroke the female’s genitalia. The courting ritual is a complex sequence of specific steps. Another fruit sly species’ male dances by sliding and circling with complex footwork and vibrating his abdominal muscles to produce a purring serenade. He can continue for an hour and the female will hit him if he stops. These tiny flies are able to do these complicated tasks soon after being born.

The tsetse fly has a lengthy detailed 30-minute foreplay process where the male rubs the female’s underside with his hind legs, sings with his wings, strokes her eyes with his front legs.

Male tree crickets raise their wings in order to sing. This exposes a body cavity known as the “ honey pot.” Female tree crickets sip secretions from this gland which puts the female in to a perfect position for mating.

I have personally observed the mating of crickets and mantids. Both were kept as “pets” in my home. I was awed at what I observed and there were things going on beyond my powers of perception. The mantis female did not eat her mate. There is some information about mantid mating in Ready to Prey.

Coitus

A male dragonfly has to transfer some sperm from a elsewhere on his abdomen to his penis.

A male dragonfly can destroy the sperm of his competitors. Some dragonflies have backwards-facing hooks or barbs on their penises, which they can use to scoop out any sperm they find inside their partner before depositing their own. Other dragonflies use their penises to tamp down or move the offending sperm, pushing it aside before he places his own in the ideal location for fertilization. Other dragonfly males will dilute any existing sperm they find.

A springtail male deposits sperm on a surface and then gently coaxes the female his partner to take it. He may nudge her toward his spermatophore, offer her a dance, or even impede her path away from his sperm offering.

Silverfish males attach their spermatophores to threads, and sometimes bind their female partners to force them to accept their sperm gifts.

Scorpion fly males offer hardened saliva or a dead insect for their mates to indulge on during intercourse. He also possesses the ability to use a clamp, located behind his wings, to force the female into a mating position.

Sagebrush cricket females eat part of the male’s hind wings why copulating.

During copulation the female passionflower butterfly sticks two stink clubs (located on her abdomen) into a pouch on the male to obtain a putrid smelling pheromone that keeps other males away.

In order to allow the male access to her genitals some female butterflies must move their abdomen out from between their wings.

Midges mate in flight.

Water strider males have grasping hooks to hold the female and the females have spines to release the male when she is ready.

Zeus bug males use a special saddle on the female’s back where he rides, eats (food provided by his mate), and mates for several days.

The female cricket climbs on to the male’s back.

Some insects mate facing away from each other.

Male bedbugs stab the female’s exoskeleton to inject the sperm. The sperm then has to swim through the blood system to find the ovaries and fertilize the eggs.

Dragonflies use the wheel position.

A male muscid fly tackles the female in slight and they tumble to the groud, finished in a few seconds.

Scaly crickets can copulate 50 times per day for up to six days.

Monarch butterfly males hold down their mate all day long.

Samples of the variety of copulation duration:

Midges: A few seconds
Fruit flies: 20 minutes.
Some flies: 1-2 minutes
Antler flies: 2.5 hours
Ornate moths: 9 hours
Lovebugs 56 hours
Zeus bug: 1 week

Sperm

A species of harvester ant queens can control the use of sperm to produce either sterile workers or fertile queens.

Mosquito sperm have a “sense of smell” and some of the things smelled cause the sperm to swim more vigorously.

In honey bees the sperm remains viable for her entire life. Special secretory cells keep the sperm healthy. When an egg moves into the oviduct, a contraction of the spermatheca pushes sperm through a duct to where it meets the egg.

After receiving sperm a female fruit fly’s reproductive tract produces secretions to activate, guide, and store it.

The sperm of male fruit flies are coated with a chemical 'sex peptide' which inhibits the female's usual afternoon siesta and compels her into an intense period of foraging activity..."It would appear that preventing sleep and inducing extra domestic-type duties to prepare for the birth of offspring in females is a further tactic used by the male to ensure successful paternity after mating . (http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2009-09/uol-ffs092709.php)

“Insect ejaculates are a soup of proteins and peptides that are immensely complex”. Dr. Goran Arnqvist (Uppsala University) That statement is typical of many that I read from scientists who study any aspect of insect reproduction.

Many males attach a sperm packet which slowly pumps sperm into the female.

A type of mothreleases pheromones as a sample when he is “courting” a female. Then hepumps this chemical from his sex organ in his seminal fluid. This provides the eggs with a foul taste to predators.

Firefly males provide a nutritional substance (spermatophore) that the female use to nourish their eggs. She mates with many males and is able to control the amount of eggs each male fertilizes. Scientists think that insects having sex with multiple mates is a check against inbreeding.

Male fruit flies place a pheromone on the exterior of the female that keeps other males away from her. Some species have males that produce sperm that is 300 times longer than that made by humans. Female fruit flies seem to know if they have an adequate amount of sperm stored in their specialized organs.

Some beetle females have a specially designed tooth to pop the packet of sperm in their bodies.

Monarch butterfly males can select the amount of fertile sperm they ejaculate. Since monarchs do not use pheromones, scientists speculate the penis contains sensors to detect the amount of sperm already in the female.

A male flour beetle that loses battles with other males over mating rights will produce double the amount of sperm which increases his changes of successful reproduction since his chances are limited.

In many insects sperm from different males compete the female’s reproductive system.

The sperm cells of fruit flies are longer than the body of the fly.

A diving beetle produces sperm that form trains of two to hundreds or thousands of individuals.

A leafcutter queen will collect 300 million sperm before setting up her colony.

Afterwards

The (fruit) fly's eggs are normally made in the ovaries and move down a long, narrow tract into the uterus, where they are fertilized by sperm that are already stored there. After fertilization, the fly lays her eggs: where and when depends on how good the environment is for the offspring. They have a set of motor neurons that squeeze the reproductive tract to push out eggs when the time is right.

Some fig wasps males work together help a pregnant female survive.

Male fruit flies that are able to mate live longer.

Having sex effects immunity, libido, eating and sleep patterns in female fruit flies.

A pregnant tiny parasitic wasp must get onto a pregnant butterfly in order to lay her eggs on those of the butterfly.

Male dragonflies will often guard the female until she oviposits her eggs. He also tries to stop her from mating with any other males.

To keep other males from copulating with his “bride’ some male butterflies plug the genital opening of the female after he inseminates her.

One insect male leaves a pheromone which is the chemical equivalent of the "letterman jacket." After mating it rains on the female’s outer body to ward off other suitors.

A female field crickets can influence the father of their offspring, even after mating with up to ten males. They may be using abdominal muscles to control the amount of sperm stored from each mate. Offspring produced with close relatives are more likely to have genetic disorders.

The purpose of sexual intercourse for insects is reproduction. Although some insects give live birth, most lay eggs. The design of insect eggs (not to mention the stunning beauty of some) is astounding. Where the eggs are deposited and camouflaged can be fascinating. Just a few examples: Mantids produce a Styrofoam like covering around their eggs. Lacewings deposit an eff on top of a stem raised vertically. Moths can cover eggs with stinging hairs. There are more fabulous facts about egg laying and eggs, but that is for another entire article.

Most female insects deposit their eggs and never give them another thought (figuratively speaking). The newly hatched insects are quite capable of surviving and that is part of God’s design for continuing insect life. Insects do not have a capacity to think and love, but some have been designed to extend the care of their progeny.

Female damselflies will mate with more than one male then sort through the sperm and choose the best.

If food is low the babies may be eaten by the insect mother.

A wasp species will produce more females if there is ample food. (That is design. If there is plenty of food the daughters will not need many brothers to mate with.)

There is a female wasp that injects just enough venom into a roach’s brain so that she can steer it zombie like to the nest to serve as food for her brood. Other wasp species provide drag or carry paralyzed spiders or caterpillars and store them for use by the babies after they hatch. The mother is long gone by then.

Some water bug females lay eggs on the male’s back where fertilization occurs. The female leaves. After the eggs hatch the male will sometimes care for the babies a little while.

Some stink, lace, and assassin bug mothers protect their eggs even through one molt of the babies. So do tortoise beetles and at least one species of mantid. Earwigs even feed 50-100 babies and the babies share food with their siblings when the mother is away. Believe it or not, some roach species care for their young.

There are cockroaches that stay together after they mate with both sexes caring for the offspring. The female feeds the babies with a milk like excretion.

Many insects can store sperm from one or more males and self-fertilize for as long as years.

Termites keep life-long mates. This article cannot get into the sexual activities of these and the other social insects: ants, bees, and wasps. Just see a tiny bit about those insects in “Complications” below.

In just a few days, a single army ant queen can lay up to 300,000 eggs.

Female insects deposit eggs in a number of ways: on the ground, buried in the ground, in water, on the plant the baby eat, inside other insects, on dead animals, on stalks, glued to the male’s back. Insect eggs come in an awesome variety of coloration and arrangement. Just Google images of “insect eggs” and be awed! Some produce egg case containers (ootheca) where many eggs are deposited. The mantid ootheca looks like a dirty chunk of dirty Styrofoam. Roach ootheca (not all roaches produce oothecae) resemble shiny brownish oblong purses. Some roaches drop the egg case in a safe place. Others carry it around attached to the end of the abdomen.

----------------------

I admire and thank the scientists who have unlocked a few of God’s mysteries. It is pathetic that many of those scientists do not give God the credit for His designs. All of the research and media reports would have been just as informative and amusing had the evolutionist idiocy been omitted.

This article has barely skimmed the surface of the immense volumes of facts about insect sex.

ADDENDUM

Complications

A type of scale insect was thought to have nearly all hermaphrodites (one individual produces eggs and sperm) and a tiny amount of males—no females occur. In 2011 scientists found out that the cottony cushion scale actually is fertilized from parasitic tissue received at birth and which contains sperm left from the insect’s father. So this intriguing insect can be a grandpa and daddy to his “child”.  Science writers made much ado about this being incest and the elimination of males. Nevertheless, normalcy is the norm because if the father’s sperm does not work, the eggs become male and normal mating is possible.

Some insects reproduce parthenogenically. Parthenogenesis is a form of asexual reproduction where the egg develops without fertilization. That, in itself, is amazing and evolutionists really have to tell some “Just So” stories to explain it, but it gets complicated by much variety in how it occurs. Sometimes there is no mating. Other times there is mating, but only female chromosomes are activated. Then there is egg meiosis and eggs without meiosis.

Most insects have the male XY (heterogametic) and female XX (homogametic) chromosomes, however some species have no Y and males have a single X. In butterflies and caddis flies that is reversed and males are homogametic while females are heterogametic.

To further boggle the brain, some bees, ants, wasps, beetles, scale insects, and thrips, determine the sex of individuals by a process known as haplodiploidy. The eggs can develop even without fertilization. A female that has not mated can lay eggs that become males. A mated female can CHOOSE to lay female eggs by releasing sperm as the egg is laid or she can lay male eggs by containing the sperm in a storage sac. So males have a mother, but no father and cannot have sons but can have grandsons!

Worthy of the “BWAH HAH HAH HAAAA!” article is how true believers in evolutionism try to explain their belief that “‘Stick insects have lived for one million years without sex’… Certain species of Timema stick insects were known to reproduce asexually, with females producing young in "virgin births" without the need for egg fertilisation by males. The insects instead produce genetic clones of themselves.” They have to explain that continuous cloning of genes devolves the species because the insects are less resistant to disease and reduced adaptability. Despite the article headline (between the ‘’) the bottom line is the unanswered questioned at the conclusion: “"Why Timema asexuals have been able to persist for so long despite all the predicted negative consequences of asexuality is the focus of ongoing studies."

Related to this subject is a discovery that t he ant species (Mycocepurus smithii ) queen is physically unable to mate. Part of her reproductive system known has degenerated. (That is devolution!--Karl) "Asexual reproduction of males from unfertilised eggs is a normal part of some insect reproduction, but asexual reproduction of females is "exceedingly rare in ants." Another article reported that most populations of the ant Mycocepurus smithii are asexual, but not all and “the transition among reproductive modes happens repeatedly.”

Evolutionists claim the advantage to a sexless life is that "It avoids the energetic cost of producing males, and doubles the number of reproductive females produced each generation from 50% to 100% of the offspring." However, combining genetic material with sexual reproduction is a much better way to reproduce because diversity means better resistance to parasites and disease.

Evolutionism

An evolutionary arms race between female and male water bugs leads to strange spikes, hooks and pads on the lad's antennae…These unusual extras accessories allow the male water striders to grasp resistant females during sex…Female water striders are able to store up sperm for later fertilization, so it benefits them to only mate once. Males, on the other hand, want to fertilize as many females as possible. So to overcome potential mates' resistance, many male water striders in the genus Rheumatobates have developed specialized appendages to give them an edge in this battle…with at least four antenna structures: one with a wrenchlike shape formed by the antenna segments; a spike that fits into the groove between the female's head, thorax and eye; a pad that rests under the female's eye; and a hook that can fit either between the head and thorax or between the female's thoracic segments. (http://www.livescience.com/20079-water-striders-sex-evolution.html) Calling it an “evolutionary arms race” is silly! Where is the evidence that the intricate spikes, hooks, and pads developed over time? One might as well believe a lock and its key evolved without being designed by an intelligent being.

Although, there didn't seem to be any evolutionary benefit to it (Female promiscuity). Scientists examining red flour beetles suggest females have an innate drive to sample lots of sperm to find the most compatible seed and increase the number of offspring that will survive. Which makes sense. Scientists at the University of East Anglia in the United Kingdom found that inbred female red flour beetles mating with just one male had a 50 per cent fewer surviving offspring than non-inbred beetles. Those mated with five males managed to have the same reproductive success as non-inbred populations. ( http://fooyoh.com/geekapolis_gadgets_wishlist/6559379) This scientific fact about that beetle will be used to preach evolutionism and promote human promiscuity. (Also see the entry about bushcrickets under Genitalia above.)

Female diving beetles have complex reproductive tracts. A scientist said, “Sperm needs Swiss army knives and compasses to make it through.” Evolutionists say, "The females make it really complicated." They claim the male sperm evolves to be able to navigate the female tract as it changes. Reality proclaims, “It is sperm. They are reproductive tracts. They are diving beetles. Those facts will not change. The knowledge that the sperm and female reproductive tracts are designed with the capacity to change is nothing more than an interesting observation of the Creator’s design.

A beetle species has females with genitalia containing a moveable plate with grooves and pits for anchor points. The male genitals have projections that fit the female’s grooves and pits. Scientists observed that the genitals change “ faster than previously expected” creating new species that are unable to mate without matching parts. Worthy of “BWAH HAH HAH HAAAA!” evolutionists say, “Female and male organs that fit together like puzzle pieces evolved into new shapes simultaneously.”

As of November 2013 there were less than three dozen examples of prehistoric insects engaging in sexual intercourse. Most of them were preserved in amber. The latest was two froghoppers found in the Jurassic rock. The specimens (a new species, but identical to living froghoppers) were preserved belly-to-belly. But living froghoppers mate side-by-side. The speculation is that the fossilization process (we know it to be likely due a catastrophic flood as in Noah) caused the difference. Of special interest is that “the genitals of these ancient insects are strikingly similar to those of their modern counterparts.” (http://phenomena.nationalgeographic.com/2013/11/06/jurassic-sex-set-in-stone/)

In an article headlined “ Why nice guys usually get the girls” we find that a primary premise of Darwinism is disputable because previous studies had confined female water striders in a way that was not natural to the way they really lived. This new study found that “Groups of low-key male water striders mated with more females than did groups of highly sexually aggressive males.” Instead of simply saying that Darwin was wrong, the author hedged his words by saying, "The naive view of Darwinian evolution is that it always favors the most savage, brutal and selfish behaviors. It doesn't -- and this is one example of that.” (http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2009-11/uoa-wng110409.php)

Genitalia

The (seed beetle—see image below) males' sexual organs have barbs and spikes that resemble medieval torture instruments... "They literally injure females internally in their copulatory duct... The new research offers the first proof that dangerous genitalia in males can represent a reproductive advantage. The resulting wounds in the females, however, are likely just an "unfortunate side effect" of the strategy, Arnqvist said, and do not provide a reproductive benefit... he suggests longer spines may act as an anchor: "Males can position their genitalia in an optimal way inside the female as the male releases [its] sperm."... it makes a "convincing case" that sperm success is due to the spininess of the genitalia, not to the damage to females... Females have thick padding on their reproductive tract that's reinforced with strong, elastic connective tissue. After each mating event—about five to ten in their 25- to 30-day lifetime—the wounds heal and leave scar tissue. (http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2009/02/090225-seed-beetle-sex.html)

Almost all insects have their genitalia inside their bodies.

Taxonomists rely on male genitalia to distinguish between many species of insects.

The cockroach reproductive apparatus was described as looking like a Swiss army knife. Referring to male reproductive organs William G. Eberhard (Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute) said, “It is just too fantastic to believe that such complicated machinery is necessary only to perform a mechanically simple function.”

Earwigs have two sets of functioning genitals.

Dragonfly genitalia consist of parts that resemble brushes, pipe-cleaners, and beach balls and can scoop out sperm deposited by other males.

The male European rabbit flea has the “most complicated genitals in the world. These are adorned with springs, levers, hooks, barbs and all sorts of twiddly bits. Here is a precision instrument that seems better suited to telling the time than depositing sperm.” (http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg16121768.400-secret-weapons.html)

Male honeybee genitals explode after intercourse.

Male damsel flies have a penis designed with a sort of scoop on their penis to remove the sperm from a previous male.

Insect female genitalia are difficult to study so more complicated designs are yet to be discovered.

For at least one species of cricket, the tuberous bushcricket (Platycleis affinis), the testicles take up 14 percent of the insect’s body mass! To put this into perspective, a man with the same proportions would have to carry testicles weighing as much as five bags of sugar each. “We couldn’t believe the size of these organs, they seemed to fill the entire abdomen. “It looks as though the testes may be that big simply to allow males to mate repeatedly without their sperm reserves being exhausted.”  ( http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/discoblog/2010/11/10/and-the-prize-for-worlds-largest-testicles-goes-to%e2%80%a6-the-bushcricket/#more-13915)

The researchers discovered that each female bushcricket takes many mates, up to 23 in a two-month adult life. It seems this lifestyle has driven the males’ evolution of mega-testicles, giving them the stamina to keep up with these promiscuous ladies. (http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/discoblog/2010/11/10/and-the-prize-for-worlds-largest-testicles-goes-to%e2%80%a6-the-bushcricket/#more-13915) Har, har, har! Both sexes could have been designed pretty much the way they are now. (Also see the entry about red flour beetles under Misc below.)—Karl

Simplified diagrams of Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) genitalia:


http://www.britannica.com

Seed beetle male genitalia:

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2009/02/photogalleries/spiky-beetle-genitals/photo3.html

History

Insects have been sexual since as far back as the fertile imaginations of evolutionists can conceive. There are Jurassic fossils of dragonflies engaging in sexual intercourse just as they do today. Two mating midges are in amber (40 million years old if you are a true believer in evolutionism) copulating as if they were captured yesterday.

Homosexuality

Some species of insects that exhibit homosexual behavior also mate with inanimate objects, like beer bottles. There is male resistance to homosexual behavior. (http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/10/131021131009.htm) Any aberration is devolution with confusion caused by them not perceiving the scents and sights they should.

A somewhat related, an agenda driven ambiguously worded, 2014 article (http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/04/140417101146.htm ) claimed that a genus of cave insects have “ sex-reversed genitalia”. The female inserts a “ penis-like organ” into the male’s “vagina-like opening”. That is unique except the “ penis-like organ” receives sperm and it is the male fertilizing the female as always. Pointing to a complicated design is that while the female part is inserted it inflates and multiple spines that lock it inside the male. It is merely an extended vagina. The male penis widely varies including a condition known as a “ concealed penis” (http://www.drgreene.com/articles/inconspicuous-penis/). Another “BWAH HAH HAH HAAAA!” worthy statement is that scientists want to study these insects to find out about “ the evolution of novelty”!

Male Competition

Often insect males will protect territories and/or fight over females. A couple of examples are: 1. Tanzanian roaches that have serious wrestling matches. 2. While male termites fight the female grooms them.

Often male insects who are around other males are more successful in mating.

Some fig wasp males help other males attract females, succeed in mating, and then help the female continue her pregnancy.

STDs

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) of insects are known from the mites, nematodes, fungi, protists and viruses. In total 73 species of parasite and pathogen from approximately 182 species of host has been reported... STDs of insects are often highly pathogenic, and are frequently responsible for sterilizing their hosts, a feature which is also found in mammalian STDs. (http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=241109)

Bed bugs protect their sperm against sexually transmitted infections by producing germ-busting ejaculates, scientists have found.  Female bed bugs protect themselves against the diseases that males transmit with a structure on their bellies that guides the penis into a mass of germ-fighting cells. (http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-14716106) Scientists are studying this phenomenon to possibly help prevent human STDs.

Researchers have discovered that, for a female fly, preparation for mating involves the "rather unromantic" anticipation of potential infection…"It appears that if she hears a sexy song, she knows she's likely to mate soon, so she makes the physiological change to prepare for mating - that involves [increasing the activity of] immune genes." ( http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/15170078)

Miscellaneous

The Female Praying Mantis: Sexual Predator or Misunderstood

The female secretes a pheromone to attract and show that she is receptive to the mate. The male then approaches her with caution. The most common courtship is when the male mantis approaches the female frontally, slowing its speed down as it nears. This has also been described as a beautiful ritual dance in which the female's final pose motions that she is ready. The second most common courtship is when the male approaches the female from behind, speeding up as it nears. He then jumps on her back, they mate, and he flies away quickly. It is most seldom that courtship occurs with the male remaining passive until approached by the female... Abdominal flex displays with a flying leap on the back of the female are executed in order to mount her. The female lashes her antennae and there is rhythmic S-bending of the abdomen. During one experiment, mantids were observed in copulation for an average of six hours... Although the praying mantis is known for its cannibalistic mating process in actuality it only occurs 5-31% of the time. Especially in laboratory conditions of bright lights and confinement, the female is more likely to eat the male as means of survival. "In nature, mating usually takes place under cover, so rather than leaning over the tank studying their every move, we left them alone and videotaped what happened. We were amazed at what we saw. Out of thirty matings, we didn't record one instance of cannibalism, and instead we saw an elaborate courtship display, with both sexes performing a ritual dance, stroking each other with their antennae before finally mating. It really was a lovely display". (http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/exchange/node/1801) Also see "Ready to Prey".

Some butterflies claim a mate before she emerges from her cocoon by sitting on it and even inserting the end of his abdomen inside.

Aphids give life birth.

The males of ants, bees, and social wasps are produced from unfertilized eggs and the females and workers from fertilized eggs. (http://entomology.ucr.edu/ebeling/ebeling4.html)

Female ornate moths get coated with a chemical substance that repels spiders. He has to change his diet in order to obtain the material to make the potent. The female passes this on to her eggs to protect them from predators.

Certain beetles, armyworm moths, and potato aphids change their mating behavior based upon air pressure indicting bad weather approaching.

Male fruit flies prefer multiple mates, but the females like only one or his brothers.

Incest is practiced by wasps and other insects.

Headlines or Titles of Sources (Partial List)

Different Strokes for Six-Legged Folks
Female Beetles have a Thirst for Sex
Length of Male’s Flash Predicts Quality of ‘Nuptial Gift’
Male Weevils..Slow Down their Consorts’ Biological Clocks
Beetle Philandering Doesn’t work out for the Ladies
New Pheromone Helps Female Flies Tell Suitors to ‘Buzz Off”
Guinness Book Gametes
Male Flies Help the Females to Bank Sperm
Love on the Fly
Flirting Flies
The Sex Life of a Mosquito
Moths and Safe Sex
Female Insects Tolerate Bugging Boyfriends
Bugs up Close
Can Bugs Improve Your Sex Life?
Age-related reproductive performance in the parental burying beetle, Nicrophorus orbicollis
Sex and the Single Insect
In the evolution of genitals, shape matters more than size

I have not read Sex on Six Legs: Lessons on Life, Love and Language from the Insect World, (Marlene Zuk. 2011), but have read reviews and the first chapter which is on line. Dr. Zuk, a devoted Darwinist, tends to drift into philosophy or even religion by insinuating (if not advocating) that mankind is merely a life form on a continuum that includes insects. Her book is not entirely about insect sex, but (as the title indicates) much of it is. Some items above are from the reviews or her book.